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Golf Turfgrass, Canadian Study at Olds College
An independent controlled study conducted by Olds College in Canada; (The Effects of Magnet Treated Irrigation Water on Kentucky Bluegrass in a Greenhouse Environment, MacKenzie, Johb, Plantje, 2014) treated irrigation water with Magnation in a greenhouse environment, with the control group remaining untreated. Results show the same effect is achieved while using 20% less irrigation water when treated, for a total of 80% water application, as compared to the controlled amount of 100% normal water application.
Approximately 2.08 billion gallons of water are used everyday to irrigate golf courses in the United States. (Lyman, 2012). A 20% reduction equals an astonishing savings of 416 million gallons daily in US turfgrass for golf courses alone.
Agriculture: 25% water reduction (9,000,000 gallons per pivot for standard quarter section), 25% less pumping energy, 10% less fertigation with higher yields
An independent controlled performance study conducted by Fintel Farms in Nebraska case study outlined here.
Data included in this Case Study with positive results include measurably reduced water costs and usage, reduced energy costs and usage, rapid and even crop growth, and reduced fertigation.
Golf Turfgrass, The International Golf Course, Amsterdam
An independent controlled study conducted at The International Golf Course in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, also had their own performance markers consistent with the findings in Canada.
PureSense® Moisture Readings between 12-60" Deep
An independent controlled study on American soils utilized PureSense® data to show Magnation's water treatment, increased soil permeability and moisture retention in problematic, salty soils at 12 inches, 24 inches, 36 inches, 48 inches, and 60 inches deep over a 7-day observation period. Improved soil moisture increased at every depth, which was never achieved prior to installing Magnation water systems.
Moisture Retention up by 251% with 50% Less Water
Brian Prine has been Director of Maintenance, Operations and Transportation in Bakersfield, California, since 2005. Brian oversees the irrigation of six different campuses in this region. State requirements forced him to cut his watering time from 6 days a week to 3 days a week. Magnation's water treatment helped soil moisture retention increase 251% with 50% less water. Prine and his crew take monthly samples from different outdoor locations around the Discovery School, outlined in the chart below.
Magnetic treatment of saline irrigation water can be used as an effective method for soil desalinization. The application of a magnetic field on water decreases the hydration of salt ions and colloids, having a positive effect on salt solubility, accelerated coagulation and salt crystallization. Field experiments showed that, sandy loam soil pots irrigated with normal highly saline water of an electrical conductivity value of 8.2 mmohs/cm retained salts compared to pots irrigated with magnetized saline water. The study showed that magnetic water increased leaching of excess soluble salts, lowered soil alkalinity and dissolved slightly soluble salts (Hilal and Hilal, 2000).
Water becomes degassed in the process of being magnetized and this degassing increases soil permeability, which creates an increase in irrigation efficiency (Bogatin et al., 1999). In addition to soil permeability, magnetic water interacts with the structural calcium in cell membranes, making the cells more permeable. The reduced surface tension observed in magnetic water results in better infiltration of water and a reduction in water and chemical use. (Goldsworthy et al., 1999)
Natural water contains micro and macroparticles of organic and inorganic natures along with different ions, zoo- and phytoplankton, and microbubbles (Bogatin et al., 1999). Magnetic treatment of water is based on the principle of “magnetohydrodynamics”, where; electrical energy is added to charged particles in water that contains ions and small solid particles with electrostatic charges by a magnetic field. The energy is produced by the momentum of the particles and remains attached to the particles as surface energy (Gehr et al., 1995).
Applying a magnetic field to natural water causes a redistribution of flow energy because of a momentum change of charged particles. All the particles and ions are electrically charged such that when magnetic fields are introduced convection and induced currents cause the liquid to spin. This movement then effects changes in gas content and the amount of salt crystallization centers in the water (Sherkliff, 1965). The quick change of the magnetic field in a properly designed magnetic apparatus loosens hydrate layers and films in a moving liquid, thus enabling coagulation and coalescence (Bogatin et al., 1999). The application of a magnetic field to natural water can enhance degassing by 25-30%, caused by local dehydration of surface microbubble films and a decrease in pressure in the center of vortices resulting in an increase in free gas bubbles that can then be released into the open air (Bogatin et al., 1999). This degassing increases permeability in soil, resulting in an increase in irrigation efficiency.
The application of a magnetic field has been shown to induce seed germination, and increase the percentage of germinated seeds. Carbonell et al. (2000) showed an increase of the germination rate and percentage of rice seeds treated with a magnetic field. Moon and Chung (2000) treated tomato seeds with a magnetic field and found that germination rates were accelerated about 1.1–2.8 times when compared to the control seeds. Germination of broad bean seeds was found to take place 2-3 days earlier when seeds underwent magnetic treatment (Podleoney et al., 2004).
Carbonell, M.V., E. Martinez, J.M. Amaya. 2000. Stimulation of germination in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by a static magnetic field. Electro-Magnetobiol, 19(1):121-128.
Faten Dhawi, Jameel M. Al-Khayri, and Essam Hassan, Saudi Arabia, 2009 Static Magnetic Field Influence on Elements Composition in Date Palm Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 5(2): 161-166, 2009
Magnetized water has been reported to triple seedling emergence of wheat (Hilal and Hilal, 2000). Reina et al. (2002) reported a significant increase in the rate of water absorption and an increase in total mass of lettuce when treated with magnetized water. Chickpea plants irrigated with magnetized water grew taller and heavier than plants irrigated with tap water (Hozayn and Qados, 2010). The authors attribute this stimulation to an increase in photosynthetic pigments, where the magnetic water induces cell metabolism and mitosis meristematic cells in pea, lentil and flax (Belyavskaya, 2001). Additionally, it is believed that new protein bands are formed in plants that are treated with magnetized water and that these proteins are responsible for increased growth (Hozayn and Qados, 2010). Magnetized water has been linked to increases in photosynthetic pigments, endogenous promotors, total phenol and protein biosynthesis in plants. (Qados and Hozayn, 2010 and Shabrangi and Majd, 2009).
Maheshwari, B.L. and H.S. Grewal. 2009. Magnetic Treatment of Irrigation Water: Evaluation of its Effects on Vegetable Crop Yield and Water Productivity. Agricultural Water Management, 96(8): 1229-1236. Elsevier International Peer Review
Further controlled studies show the following results on varying crops:
Dairy cows that drink magnetized water have shown an increase in milk production with the same amount of milk fat as present in cows drinking ordinary water. They also have a longer lactation period with fewer non-productive days and overall health is better (Lin and Yotvat, 1990). (Levy et al. 1990) demonstrated that young male cattle watered with magnetized water increased their dry feed intake, while improving their digestion and nitrogen retention.
Piglets watered with magnetized water drank twice as much water, and grew 12.5% larger than the control group (Kronenberg, 1993).
Chickens watered with magnetized water grew larger, with an increase in the meat to fat ratio, and experienced reduced mortality rates (Gholizadeh et al., 2008). Also, poultry have showed an increase in egg production when watered with magnetized water (Lin and Yotvat, 1990)
1M. Gholizadeh, H. Arabshahi, M.R. Saeidi, and B. Mahdavi; Iran 2008, The Effect of Magnetic Water on Growth and Quality Improvement of Poultry, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 3 (3): 140-144, 2008
Magnetic treatment directly influences the carbonate equilibrium in water, leading to the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles in solution that then cannot precipitate on pipe walls and other equipment. Patented in 1945 (Vermeiren), magnetic water can be used to prevent and remove scale and is currently common global use of this water technology.
Mineralized coatings inside pipes and water containers have been found to reduce with the use of a magnetized water system (Lin and Yotvat, 1990). Barrett and Parsons (1998) attribute scale reduction to the effect of MW on CaCO3 particles by suppressing nucleation and accelerating crystal growth.
Magnetic water treatment for the prevention of scale is accomplished by passing water through a strong magnet that is installed on or in a feed line. Then when the water is later heated, either in a heat exchanger or a boiler, it has lost its tendency to precipitation scale onto the hot surfaces and the deposits that do form have a looser texture that is easily removed (Herzog et al., 1989).
With an efficiency rating of 20-40%, magnetic treatment devices can remove old scale deposits and prevent the formation of new deposits (Kronenberg, 1993).
Magnetic Treatment of Water Prevents Mineral Build-up
C. Jack Quinn, Professor Emeritus, Purdue University, Fort Wayne, Ind., T. Craig Molden, President, Molden Associates, Inc., Michigan City, Ind., and Charles H. Sanderson, Project Engineer—Superior Manufacturing Div., Magnatech Corp., Fort Wayne, Ind., 1997
Non-Chemical Technologies for Scale and Hardness Control
U.S. Department of Energy. 1998. Federal Technology Alert.
DOE/EE-0162, U.S. DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 22pp.
The Effect of Magnetic Field on Water Hardness Reducing
H. Banejad and E. Abdosalehi, Irrigation Dept. Agriculture Faculty, Bu_Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran, 2009
Thirteenth International Water Technology Conference, IWTC 13 2009, Hurghada, Egypt
Effects of Magnetized Water on Soil Sulphate Ions in Trickle Irrigation
Behrouz Mostafazadeh-Fard, Mojtaba Khoshravesh, Sayed-Farhad Mousavi, and Ali-Reza Kiani 2011
2nd International Conference on Environmental Engineering and Applications IPCBEE vol.17 2011
Effects of Magnetic Field on Calcium Carbonate Precipitation in Static and Dynamic Fluid Systems
Nelson Saksono, Achmad Fauzie, Setijo Bismo, and Roekmijati W S.
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Kampus UI – Depok 16424 Indonesia
14th Regional Symposium on Chemical Engineering 2007 ISBN 978-979-16978-0-4
Effects of Magnetic Field on the Crystallization of CaCO3 Using Permanent Magnets
Clifford Y. Tai∗, Chi-Kao Wu, Meng-Chun Chang
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Controlled study with Neveena, a denim manufacturer in Pakistan reported recovery condensate water increased from 974 m3 to 1129 m3 — this translates to a 7.4 percent increase in efficiency. Secondly, the number of blowdowns decreased from twelve (12) to five (5) per 24-hours, which means more than 58 percent blowdown costs saved. At the time of testing, both before and after the Magnation unit was installed, the Reverse Osmosis system was malfunctioning and is excluded as a factor in the results.
Controlled study with Marin County Fire Department in 2009, shows Magnation's water technology increased the water flow from 450 gallons per minute to 510 gpm. Just as favorable, it also decreased it’s pump intake pressure from 100 to 90 psi, pump discharge pressure from 130 to 120 psi, and the pump work rate from 700 to 600 psi.
The effect of our magnetic systems on making matter lighter or smaller on subatomic levels include chlorides and nitrates. Have a look at the dramatic shift in the image below.
Magnetized water, also termed "magnetic water" is water that has been passed through a magnetic field. Magnetic water treatment devices are environmentally friendly, with low installation costs and no energy requirements. Magnetic water can be used to increase crop yield, induce seed germination and benefit the health of livestock. Magnetic water treatment is currently used in Australia, Bulgaria, China, England, Japan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Turkey and the United States for these purposes (Qados and Hozyan, 2010 and Hozayn and Qados, 2010).
It is believed that magnetic water used for irrigation can improve water productivity (Duarte Diaz et al., 1997), and has been shown to use 20% less water with the same results as non-treated water on turfgrass (Olds College for TurfGrass Management, Canada; MacKenzie, Johb, Plantje, 2014), thus conserving water supplies for the expected future global water scarcity. Magnetic water has also been found to be effective at preventing and removing scale deposits in pipes and water containing structures.
Magnetically treated water also can increase the levels of CO2 and H+ in soils comparable to the addition of fertilizers. Cleaning agents have an increased effectiveness when combined with the power of magnetic water, and the amount of cleaner used can be reduced by one-third to one-fourth (Kronenberg, 1993). Swimming pool water quality can be improved by the addition of a clamp on magnetic device on the circulation system. The magnetic device can prevent and remove scale build up at the water line in the pool and filtration system, and allow for chlorine levels to be reduced by one-half (Kronenberg, 1993).
Misc. Research and Articles
Belyavskaya, N.A. 2001. Ultrastructure and calcium balance in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to extremely low magnetic fields, Adv. Space Res., 28:645–650.
Bogatin, J., N.PH. Bondarenko, Z. Gake, E.E. Rokhinson and I.P. Ananyev. 1999. Magnetic treatment of irrigation water: experimental results and application conditions, Environmental Science and Technology, 33: 1280–1285
Busch K.W., M.A. Busch, D.H. Parker, R.E. Darling and J.L. McAtee Jr. 1985. Laboratory studies involving magnetic treatment devices. Corrosion 85, NACE Houston Paper No. 251.
Chang, K. and C. Weng. 2006. The effect of an external magnetic field on the structure of liquid water using molecular dynamics simulation. Journal of Applied Physics,100.
Dayong, L., W. Shen, C. Jingyi, L. Tingren, C. Baoyi and F. Zhiyu. 1999. Effect of Magnetized water on the mice given high doses of antineoplastic drugs. Journal of Shanghai University 3(1): 81-83.
Duarte Diaz, C.E., J.A. Riquenes, B. Sotolongo, M.A. Portuondo, E.O. Quintana and R. Perez. 1997. Effects of magnetic treatment of irrigation water on the tomato crop. Hortic. Abst., 69:494.
Ellingsen, F.T. and H. Kristiansen. 1979. Does magnetic treatment influence precipitation of calcium carbonate from supersaturated solutions? Vatten, 35:309-315.
Gehr R., Z.A. Zhai, J.A. Finch and S.R. Rao. 1995. Reduction of soluble mineral concentrations in caso4 saturated water using a magnetic field. Wat. Res., 29(3): 933-940.
Ghauri, S. A. and M.S. Ansari. 2006. Increase of water viscosity under the influence of magnetic field. Journal of Applied Physics, 100.
Gholizadeh, M., H. Arabshahi, M. Saeidi, B. Mahdavi. 2008. The effect of magnetic water on growth and quality improvement of poultry. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 3(3):140-144.
Goldsworthy, A., H. Whitney and E. Morris. 1999.Water Research, 33(7): 1618-1626
Govoroon, R.D., V.I. Danilov, V.M. Fomicheva, N.A. Belyavskaya, Zinchenko, S. Yu. 1992. Effects of fluctuations of a geomagnetic field and its screening on early phases in development of higher plants. Biofizika, 37:738–743.
Grusche, S. and Z. Rona. 1997. Encyclopedia of natural healing: A practical self-help guide. Alive Books.
Hilal, M.H. and M.M. Hilal. 2000. Application of magnetic technologies in desert agriculture. Egyptian Journal of Soil Science, 40(3): 423-435.
Hozayn, M.; Qados, A.M.S.A. 2010. Irrigation with magnetized water enhances growth, chemical constituent and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1(4):671-676.
Joshi K.M. and P.V. Kamat. 1966. Effect of magnetic field on the physical properties of water. J. Ind. Chem. Soc., 43: 620-622.
Kronenberg, K. 1993. More alluring facts about treating water with magnets. Aqua Magazine, September 1993.
Lin I.J. and J. Yotvat. 1990. Exposure of Irrigation and Drinking Water to a Magnetic Field with Controlled Power and Direction. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 83: 525-526.
Lipusa,L. and D. Dobersekb. 2007. Influence of magnetic field on the aragonite precipitation. Chemical Engineering Science, 62: 2089 – 2095.
McMahon, C. 2009. Investigation of the quality of water treated by magnetic fields. University of Southern Queensland Faculty of Engineering and Surveying. Undergraduate thesis.
Moon J.D. and H.S. Chung. 2000. Acceleration of germination of tomato seed by applying AC electric and magnetic fields. J. Electrostatistics, 48:103-114.
Morejón, L.P., J.C. Castro Palacio, L. Velázquez, and A. P. Govea. 2007. Stimulation of Pinus tropicalis M. seeds by magnetically treated water. Int. Agrophysics, 21:173-177.
Otsuka, I. and S. Ozeki. 2006. Does magnetic treatment of water changes its properties? J. Phys. Chem., 110(4):1509-1512.
Parsons, S.A., B.L. Wang, S.J. Judd and T. Stephenson. 1997. Magnetic treatment of calcium carbonate scale – effect of pH control. Wat. Res., 31(2):339-342.
Podleoney, J., S. Pietruszewski, and A. Podleoena. 2004. Efficiency of the magnetic treatment of broad bean seeds cultivated under experimental plot conditions. Int. Agrophys. 18:65-71.
Qados, A. and M. Hozayn. 2010. Magnetic Water Technology, a Novel Tool to Increase Growth, Yield, and Chemical Constituents of Lentil (Lens esculenta) under Greenhouse Condition. American-Eurazian J. Agric. and Environ. Sci., 7(4): 457-462.
Renia F.G., L.A. Pascual, I.A. Fundora 2001. Influence of a Stationary Magnetic Field on water relations in lettuce Seeds. Part II: Experimental Results. Bioelectromagnetics, 22:596-602.
Ritchie, I. and R. Lehnen. 2001. Magnetic conditioning of fluids: an emerging green technology. 5th Annual Green Chemistry and Engineering Conference, June 26-28, 2001. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.
Shabrangi, A. and A. Majd. 2009. Effect of Magnetic Fields on Growth and Antioxidant Systems in Agricultural Plants. PIERS Proceedings, Beijing, China, March, 23-37.
Shercliff, J.A. 1965. A Textbook of Magnetohydynamics. Pergamon Press, New York.
Smith,C., P. Coetzee and J. Meyer. 2003. The effectiveness of a magnetic physical water treatment device on scaling in domestic hot-water storage tanks, Water SA, 29(3).
Watt, D. and C. Rosenfelder. 2005. The effect of oral irrigation with a magnetic water treatment device on plaque and calculus. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 20(5): 314-317.
Yue, Y. W. Huaxiang, X. Wenhui, Z. Xiehe, M. Dingxiang, M. Tingjie and L. Su. 1983. Studies on the effect of magnetized water in the treatment of urinary stone and salivary calculus. Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Rare Earth-Cobalt Permanent magnets and their Applications.